Sunday, May 24, 2020

The Narrative of Frederick Douglass and David Walkers Appeal

Although slavery has long been abolished, there is no doubt that there were important pieces of literature being produced at this time. The most significant pieces of literature were those against slavery. Anti-slavery writings gave people a closer look into what it is was like to be a slave. Two writings in particular played an essential role in expressing the mistreatment of slaves and the African American race itself. The Narrative of Frederick Douglass and David Walkers Appeal, explained the problems slaves has in learning, hypocrisy in Christianity within the slave owner, and the action slaves should take. Fredrick Douglas was born a slave. In his narrative, Mr. Douglass explains how his mistress took an interest in him. Mrs. Auld would teach Mr. Douglass how to read, but was forbidden to continue by her husband, Mr. Auld. Mr. Auld explained to his wife, teaching a slave to read and write would make him unmanageable and unfit to be a slave. It was at this very moment Frederick D ouglas learned whites held slaves back by depriving them of an education and literacy. In realizing the strategies of the whites, Frederick Douglass understood that slavery was not a natural part of society. Mr. Douglass also understood that he was not naturally inferior, but was being held back by the whites need to enforce the lack of knowledge amongst the slaves. Frederick Douglass understood in order to be free he had to learn to read and write. To obtain his education, Mr. Douglass becameShow MoreRelatedEssay on Rhetoric of Resistance in Literature995 Words   |  4 PagesRhetoric of Resistance in Literature Throughout this semester we have read material focusing on slave narratives, authentic and fictionalized. Three very important pieces of literature during the period in which slavery was alive and well in this country that will be examined are: Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, David Walkers Appeal and Henry Highland Garnets An Address to the Slaves of the United States of America. Each of these pieces proved to be material that was consideredRead MoreAbolitionism and William Wells Brown987 Words   |  4 PagesAlso, in Clotel; or, The Presidents Daughter: A Narrative of Slave Life in the United States (1853), the first African American novel, Brown relates the story of Thomas Jeffersons relationship with his slave mistress Sally Hemings (1773–1835). Originally published in England, the novel eventually came to U.S. readers, but only after it had been significantly revised, with references to the president removed. Much like the evolution of Douglasss anti-slav ery agenda, Brown began his career as aRead MoreLiterature as Resistance in the Anti-Slavery Movement Essay3309 Words   |  14 Pages(206) FREDERICK DOUGLASS In the same vein as Stewart, Frederick Douglass in his Narrative emphasizes that education is as important as freedom itself. He describes this idea when describing his motivation for learning how to read. Slaveholders kept their slaves illiterate and uneducated to ensure their slaves ignorance, as literacy could be a powerful tool. Yet, Douglass detects this tactic after overhearing a conversation between his master and the masters wife. Thus, Douglass comes to realizeRead MoreSlavery And The Slavery Of Slavery Essay1742 Words   |  7 Pagesfreedom varied throughout time periods and regions; in 1739, you have the Stono Rebellion, people used laws to argue their cases of injustice, such as Emanuel Pieterson and Dorothy Angola, who fought for the freedom of their child and David Walker, Frederick Douglass and Harriet Jacob who used literature to speak against the institution of slavery. Another aspect was that freedom had a different definition in the north and in the south. Norther n freedmen and women had often better opportunities andRead MoreThe Invention Of The Sewing Machine Essay1141 Words   |  5 Pagesmasters no matters if they were old or young, man or woman. For Example, each slave had just one or two shirts to wear for the whole year in winter and summer. Until a slave born in Maryland named Fredrick Douglass who wrote his own autobiography narrative â€Å"Narrative of the Life of Fredrick Douglass† describing the horrors of slavery. He then escaped from slavery on September 3, 1838 and became one of the most powerful voices in America against slavery at that time. Many slaves in the south startedRead More Abolition Essay870 Words   |  4 PagesFreedom’s Journal, was created by Samuel Cornish and John Russwurm (Notes, 11/29/00). This paper spread ideas of freedom and equality and gave hope to the black readers. David Walker, the son of a free black mother and a slave father, pushed the abolitionist movement into militancy in 1829 when he published David Walker’s Appeal. His work inspired blacks to organize and urged slaves to rise up against their masters and take their freedom by force (Notes, 11/27/00). Even with tensions high, some abolitionistsRead MoreRole Of African American Women During The Abolitionist Movement1868 Words   |  8 PagesChristianity and the wri ting of David Walker. David walker was an African American abolitionist and antislavery activist who, published in 1829, An Appeal to the Coloured Citizens of the World, as a call for black unity and a fight for freedom from oppression and injustice. This appeal was believed by many slaveholders in the South to be an incitement of Nat Turner’s preaching’s of violence against whites. The same slave holders could’ve been the ones at fault for Walker’s mysterious death in 1830.

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

To Kill A Mockingbird Trial Analysis - 1076 Words

Significant incidents in a text are deliberately chosen to highlight a flaw in society or to express the composer’s concerns. Harper Lee’s To Kill a Mockingbird (1960) ignites this notion as she purposefully chooses Tom Robinson’s trial to be the climax of the text where the flaws in society become highlighted. The trial and what happens during the trial does have some parallels to Lee’s purpose of exposing the race relations in the Southern states of America to her audience of the 1960s in the grip of the civil rights movement. This has proliferated and added power to her purpose of raising awareness of bigotry and the treatment of others to her audience of the 1960’s. Harper Lee uses the trial scene as a platform to further highlight†¦show more content†¦The purpose of the trial can be linked to how Lee implies that racial prejudice spans further to areas where justice is to be uphold such as in the judicial system. Harper Lee, through her text, also denotes the repercussions of a power-based societal structure. The climax of the text, the trial, can be linked to others parts of the novel. In To Kill A Mockingbird, social inequality is evident throughout the text, which expands on her purpose of critiquing her American 1930’s Maycomb. At the beginning, it becomes evident that there is an overcomplicated social hierarchy in Maycomb. The social inequality is displayed in the juxtaposition, â€Å"Negroes worshipped it (church) on Sundays and white men gambled in it on weekdays†. The quote shows that the â€Å"white men† have disrespect towards the property of the blacks. It also suggests that the Negro community is too poor to build their own church, which highlights the social inequality faced in Maycomb. With the social hierarchy in mind, the Finches are near the top where the Cunninghams and â€Å"white trash† Ewells are below. However, even though the Ewells are the lowest of the lows of the white community they still are above the black community only on the basis of skin colour. With this social power over the blacks, Bob Ewell is able to persecuted Tom Robinson and know for sure that he will win the court case as â€Å"A white mans word, against a black mans word, the white man always wins†. A linkShow MoreRelatedTheme Of To Kill A Mockingbird1699 Words   |  7 Pages The Pureness of Mockingbirds In 1960, Harper Lee published one of the most controversial books of our time. To kill a mockingbird contains three debatable themes; racism, good and evil, and morals. Harper Lee uses three children and rape trial to portray these topics. These themes are present throughout the story of a small Alabama town divided over a rape trial including an African American man and a young white girl. Lee’s novel is still disputed over to this day. One of the book’s centralRead MoreEssay Justice System in To Kill a Mockingbird897 Words   |  4 PagesAlthough the dedication of Mr. Finch in â€Å"To Kill a Mockingbird†, even though it turned out against his favor due to an absence of evidence and a debauched court hearing. This court hearing makes readers question whether or not the justice system of that era was fair and in retrospect, a good question is whether or not our justice system today is fair and lawful. If you think that a false conviction was unfair, Tom is eventually killed for his false conviction under a faulty justice system. To meRead MoreEffects Of Racial Discrimination In To Kill A Mockingbird1526 Words   |  7 Pageswhen you believe that a certain race is bad. Intrinsic racism is when you have a specific hatred towards a certain race. To Kill a Mockingbird, a novel that shows many forms of racial discrimination that was written b y Harper Lee in the 1960’s. In To Kill a Mockingbird , a black male named Tom Robinson is accused of raping a white woman named Mayella Ewell. During the trial Robinson was well represented by a prominent lawyer named Atticus. Atticus knew because of racial discrimination Robinson wouldRead MoreAnalysis Of The Book Of Kill A Mockingbird 1271 Words   |  6 PagesJourney Tasopulos Brannen ELA-8 19 April, 2015 Novel Analysis: To Kill A Mockingbird Selection: I selected this book because its the best book I have ever read. I read To Kill A Mockingbird last year and my class wrote an essay about this book, since I already know so much about this book I thought it would be a nice and quick read. I thought it would be a great enjoyment to refresh my memory of this epic book. I watched the movie soon after I read the whole book and it was very fun to pick outRead MoreTo Kill a Mockingbird977 Words   |  4 PagesLiterary Analysis for To Kill a Mockingbird â€Å"There’s something in our world that makes men lose their heads- they couldn’t be fair if they tried. In our courts, when it’s a white man’s word against a black man’s word, the white always wins. They’re ugly, but these are the facts of life.† ************ Along with the main theme of the story, racism, there are multiple other themes that are represented in the story. These include: the coexistence of good and evil, and importance of mortal educationRead MoreAnalysis of To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee Essay1360 Words   |  6 PagesAnalysis of To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee In 1960, Harper Lee published her critically acclaimed book To Kill a Mockingbird. Only a year after being published the American classic novel was awarded the Pulitzer Prize in fiction as well as the Brotherhood Award of the National Conference of Christians and Jews. Gregory Peck stared as Atticus in the successfully adapted 1962 motion picture of To Kill a Mockingbird that won an Academy Award. This book is based on many childhood experiencesRead MoreA Time to Kill and to Kill a Mockingbird1314 Words   |  6 PagesThe movie based on John Grishams A Time to Kill is a Hollywoodized, modern-day version of To Kill a Mockingbird. Both movies employ many of the same themes and plot elements; but the former movie is one-dimensional and predictable while the latter is innovative and purposeful. The movie version of Harper Lees novel To Kill a Mockingbird is considered a classic film, whereas John Grishams adapted novel is merely another example of the money making efforts of Hollywood. Some of the movies moreRead More Comparing the Movies A Time to Kill, by John Grisham and To Kill a Mockingbird1285 Words   |  6 Pages The movie based on John Grishams A Time to Kill is a Hollywoodized, modern-day version of To Kill a Mockingbird. Both movies employ many of the same themes and plot elements; but the former movie is one-dimensional and predictable while the latter is innovative and purposeful. The movie version of Harper Lees novel To Kill a Mockingbird is considered a classic film, whereas John Grisham?s adapted novel is merely another example of the money making efforts of Hollywood. Some of the moviesRead MoreTheme Of Prejudice In To Kill A Mockingbird1452 Words   |  6 PagesAn Analysis of Prejudice Prejudice is defined as a preconceived judgement, or as an adverse opinion formed without just grounds or before sufficient knowledge. Harper Lee’s To Kill a Mockingbird explores many themes, one of them being prejudice. The story takes place in Maycomb, Alabama in the 1930’s, an era commonly remembered for the intense racism and sexism that dominated the time. To Kill a Mockingbird centers around the mystery of Arthur Radley, also known as Boo, and the trial of a blackRead MoreEssay To Kill a Mockingbird: An Analysis of Discrimination893 Words   |  4 PagesTo Kill a Mockingbird: An Analysis of Discrimination The most important theme of the 1960 Pulitzer Prize winning novel To Kill a Mockingbird is author Harper Lee’s tenacious exploration of the moral nature of people. Lee tenaciously explores the moral nature of human beings, especially the struggle in every human soul between discrimination and tolerance. The novel is very effective in not only revealing prejudice, but in examining the nature of prejudice, how it works, and its consequences

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Argumentative Photo Essay Topics Reviews & Tips

Argumentative Photo Essay Topics Reviews & Tips The Basics of Argumentative Photo Essay Topics You can also buy books or other things to get ready for college through our on-line shop. The type of information which Becky just got new automobile interior is entirely useless in the very long run. Photo projects provide a good method to try out something new and will be able to help you escape from a rut. A portrait series isn't the only sort of series. There's, obviously, a limit on the range of pages even our finest writers can produce with a pressing deadline, but generally, we figure out how to satisfy all the clients seeking urgent assistance. The very first step is where a significant number of students become stuck. All the world's most significant museums ought to be free to visit, particularly for foreigners. Students lead busy lives and frequently forget about an approaching deadline. Argumentative Photo Essay Topics Ideas Photo essays are an easy, engaging app roach to get started. Photo submission Submit your initial photo. A photo essay is basically a storyor in this instance, an argumentthat is created through mainly images rather than text. This photo essay is going to be a component of that shift. To achieve that, the very first body paragraph has to start with getting a more thorough description of the photo. The type of such a story is known as the photo essay. If it turned out to be a personal choice photo, it's essential to defend your choice inside this paragraph. For instance, if you select an argumentative essay topics category in the most suitable region of the site page, the list of themes will show up in the left portion of this page. Don't neglect to have a look at links to other search websites, in addition to other web sites you might discover useful. The actual individuals highly praise our essay help site. You can trust the ideal essay help online. Argumentative Photo Essay Topics Options You may teach these ideas directly or have students do the job by researching by themselves. Students utilize constructive criticism rather than making judgements. As stated by the literature, such a seminar is beneficial for teachers who want students to explore an assortment of texts around a major issue or topic. The seminars encourage students to work with each other, creating meaning from the text and to keep away from attempting to locate an appropriate interpretation. The Argumentative Photo Essay Topics Stories Photos of celebrities and regular users in gyms can act as powerful motivators to quit eating fast-food and purchase a gym membership. After discovering our website, you will no longer will need to bother friends and family with these kinds of requests. Another benefit of our website is the quickness. Our customer support will gladly tell you whether there are any special offers at the present time, and make sure you are getting the very best service our business can deliver. By way of example, in college, you might be requested to compose a paper from the opposing viewpoint. Give a concise introduction of all of the people that you write about including yourself. Your thesis ought to be relevant so the report can use a structure that's flexible in order to fit in the shoes of the readers. Some have different financial troubles. It is possible to make use of these topics since they are or use them as hints to come up with your own ideas. The topic has to be interesting, the topic has to be essential and finally the topic has to be informative. It's important to select debatable argumentative essay topics as you need opposing points you may counter to your own points. By doing this, it is possible to find any topic in any category that is going to be a great foundation for your argumentative essay. Inspiration to make your own advertising or media argumentative essay topics isn't tricky to discover. On our site, you can find a lot of tips for themes for an argumentative essay. Avoiding social media can be quite tough. The Honest to Goodness Truth on Argumentative Photo Essay Topics Body paragraphs reveal the key events explained in the essay. It's defined as the absolute most basic kind of essay. Coin an intriguing thesis statement applicable to the topic whilst outlining the main objective and aim of the photo essay. Include a thesis statement to outline the function of the essay. Even though there are systematic ways on composing your very own informative essay, it can be challenging to do. Hopefully you are starting to acquire a better grasp about how to pick from the endless kinds of reflective essay topics and possibly even a better idea of the way to begin writing your essay. There are 3 methods that could be utilised in providing explanation for informative essay. The standard manner of essay writing can acquire monotonous for students. The Argumentative Photo Essay Topics Game For instance, there isn't any way you are able to argue on this issue of whether humans walk on two legs because it is a known fact with no attached debate. It's essential not just to supply the evidence to back up your position but also to refute that of your opponents. When you get rid of an argument, odds are you only used opinion to strengthen your position. An excellent argument demands the usage of logic and irrefutable evidence. It's possible to also restate the ide as you have discussed in the body paragraphs in order to make your point valid. It is crucial to get started with demonstrating the major idea of the entire piece so you and your readers are going to be on the exact page. Write a concise overview of your key points and the general takeaway from your reflection. For each point, check with the photo to strengthen your claim.

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Employment Law Cases 2016 Eight Decisions to Look out For

Question: Describe about the Employment law cases 2016 for eight decisions to look out for. Answer: The said case is between the Secretary of Sate and Miss L R Parsons. The case was against the decision, which was made by the Secretary of State on 1st September 2015 regarding the Personal Independence Payment. PIP is a welfare benefit, which is being provided in U K. This is paid only when any person is suffering from any health condition or he is disabling. It is generally paid based on the effects of a condition of a person. It is applicable to people aged between 16 to 64 and to claim PIP one has to go several tests and the test must be passed three months prior of claiming. (DisabilityrightsUK, 2016) In this case Miss Parson was suffering from various diseases due to which she was unable to carry out any daily activities. She had diseases like nystagmus, swelling, arthritis, asthma, hypermobility and anxiety. Due to all these diseases she was unable to perform her daily activities so an appeal was made to the Tribunal for claiming PIP. She had scored 10 points on the basis of the following descriptions: She was unable to take nutrition. For taking nutrition one needs supervision, assistance and to use an aid or appliance. Due to her ill health she was unable to take it. She was almost handicapped so she was unable to prepare her own food. So there should be someone who could cook and serve her food. Without this she wont be able to survive. Needs a person who could help her to bathe and even wash her daily belongings and other household stuffs. She was so ill that she even couldnt dress or undress herself. This shows she was completely dependent upon a person. She was also suffering from an eye disease due to which she was unable to read anything. So for this a person was required who can read out any information for her. Based on these descriptions Miss Parson was given 10 points and case was declared in favor of her. She is now eligible to receive PIP from 30th September 2015 till 29th September 2018, which is three years. (, 2016) But she was not awarded an award for mobility component from 30th September 2015 since she had scored 0 points in it. This decision was given based on the evidences, which was placed in the Tribunal and based on the medical, and disability expertise. It was clearly seen that Miss Parsons was severely ill due to which her daily activities got effected and hence she was eligible for the PIP which is offered by the government. (Tribunaldecisions, 2016) The Judge named J D Roberts, D Nair and Mrs J Heller decided this case. Miss Parson appealed case on 26th February 2016 and the Tribunal took even the decision on 26th February 2016 in favor of Miss Parson. References Employment law cases 2016: eight decisions to look out for | Personnel Today. 2016.Employment law cases 2016: eight decisions to look out for | Personnel Today. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 16 March 2016]. Personal Independence Payment (PIP) | Disability Rights UK. 2016.Personal Independence Payment (PIP) | Disability Rights UK. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 16 March 2016]. Tribunal decisions. 2016.Tribunal decisions. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 16 March 2016]. Turn2us - What is Personal Independence Payment? . 2016.Turn2us - What is Personal Independence Payment?. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 16 March 2016].

Friday, April 3, 2020

Carbohydrates lab report Sample

Carbohydrates lab report Paper Carbohydrates are a type of acquirement found in many foods and beverages. Most carbohydrates are naturally occurring in plant-based foods, such as grains. Food manufacturers also add carbohydrates to processed foods in the form of starch or added sugar. As with all our approaches to food ingredients/constituents we will first examine the structure of carbohydrates and then try to elucidate how their structures allow them to function as they do. As their name suggests, carbohydrates basically made up from sugar and water, i. E. Xx(H2O)y, although this ratio is often not strictly true and occasionally other atoms may be present. The carbons are arranges in a chain (most often 5-6 atoms) functionalities with alcohol groups. The terminal carbon either carries either an alder or a ketene functional group. Carbohydrates are classified based on size of base carbon chain, number of sugar units, location of C=O and psychotherapy. Classifications of carbohydrate are incarcerations, disaccharide, electrocardiographs, and polysaccharides. Macroeconomics is the smallest possible sugar unit. Examples include glucose, calaboose or fructose. When we talk about blood sugar we are referring to glucose in the blood; glucose is a major source of energy or a cell. In human nutrition, calaboose can be found most readily in milk and dairy products, while fructose is found mostly in vegetables and fruit. When incarcerations merge together in linked groups they are known as polysaccharides. Disaccharide is two macroeconomics molecules bonded together. Polysaccharides are polymers. A simple compound is a monomer, while a complex compound is a polymer which is made of two or more monomers. We will write a custom essay sample on Carbohydrates lab report specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Carbohydrates lab report specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Carbohydrates lab report specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Disaccharide are polysaccharides poly Specifies any number higher than one, while specifies exactly two. Examples of disaccharide include lactose, maltose, and sucrose. If you bond one glucose molecule with a fructose molecule you get a sucrose molecule. Sucrose is found in table sugar, and is often formed as a result of photosynthesis (sunlight absorbed by chlorophyll reacting with other compounds in plants). If you bond one glucose molecule with a calaboose molecule you get lactose, which is commonly found in milk. Starch, glycogen, Textron and cellulose are polysaccharides. Polysaccharides differ not only in the natural of their component incarcerations but also in the length of their chains and in the amount of chain branching that occurs. Polysaccharides function as storage trials, structural components, or protective substances. Thus, starch ( which exists in two forms: amylase and implementation ), glycogen and other storage polysaccharides, as readily metabolize food, provide energy reserves for cells. Chitin and cellulose provide strong support for the skeletons of arthropods and green plants, respectively. In this experiment those activity that had been carried out means to determine the carbohydrate class of an unknown by carrying out a series of chemical reactions with the unknown and known compounds in each class of carbohydrate such as the Mollies test (general CHOC), Beebreads test incarcerations), Feelings test (reducing sugars), Benedicts test (reducing sugars) and Iodine test (amylase). ACTIVITY 3. , MOLLIES TEST: A GENERAL TEST FOR CARBOHYDRATES OBJECTIVE: To test the carbohydrate solution MATERIALS: 1 % of carbohydrate solutions( lactose, glucose, starch, sucrose, cellulose, fructose, apple and cabbage ), distilled water(as control tube), concentrated sulfuric acid, Mollies reagent. APPARATUS: Test tubes, test tube holder, dropper, ml pipette, glass rod, test tube rack, fume cupboard CAUTION: Mulish reagent contains concentrated sulfuric acid , which is toxic and corros ive. It can cause severe burns. Prevent eye, skin clothing, and combustible material contact. Avoid ingesting the substance. Elf you spill any reagent or acid, immediately notify your laboratory instructor. NOTE: Do not place your thumb over the open end off test tube when mixing its contents. Your laboratory instructor will suggest ways in which you can safely and thoroughly mix the contents of a test tube. PROCEDURES: 1. 2 ml of each of the 1% carbohydrate solutions that have been prepared is added into one set of labeled test tubes. 2. 2 drops of Mollies reagent are added to each test tube and is mixed well with a clean glass stirring rod. . The test tube is inclined. Then ml of concentrated sulfuric acid is added slowly and carefully down the side of the tube to form a layer below the sugar solution. ( This step is performed inside the fume cupboard ). 4. The resulting solution did not been shook or mixed. 5. The change of the solution is observed and recorded. (A purple ring at the interface is indicative of a carbohydrate ). 6. The test solutions containing Mollies reagent is discarded into the container provided by laboratory instructor. RESULT: DISCUSSION: Carbohydrates undergo dehydration reactions (loss of water) in the presence f concentrated sulfuric acid. Pentose and hoses form five member oxygen containing rings on dehydration. The five member ring, known as formula, further reacts with Mollies reagent to form colored compounds. Pentose are then dehydrated to formula, while hoses are dehydrated to 5- hydroxymethylfurfural. Either of these leaderless, if present, will condense with two molecules of naphtha to form a purple-colored product. A positive reaction is indicated by appearance of a purple ring at the interface between the acid and test layers. Incarcerations give a rapid positive test. Glucose and fructose are macroeconomics. Disaccharide and polysaccharides react more slowly than macroeconomics. Sucrose and lactose are disaccharide which also gave purple color ring. Starch and cellulose gave slightly purple color because they are polysaccharides. Distilled water gave negative test because it is not carbohydrate. A large apple has around 28-31 grams of carbohydrate. Apple and cabbage contain carbohydrate so that they gave purple ring in this test. CONCLUSION: Glucose, lactose, fructose, sucrose, starch and cellulose all are carbohydrates which give positive test for Mollies test. A sample of distilled water is prepared and tested as the controlling sample. ACTIVITY 3. 2, BEEBREADS TEST:A GENERAL TEST TO DISTINGUISH BETWEEN MACROECONOMICS AND DISACCHARIDE To distinguish the given carbohydrate solutions as incarcerations or disaccharide. MATERIALS: fructose), distilled water (as control tube), Beebreads reagent APPARATUS: Test tubes, test tube holder, 5 ml pipette, pipette filler, stop watch, water bath CAUTION : Beebreads reagent is corrosive and an irritant. If you spill any of the solution on yourself or on the bench, immediately notify your laboratory instructor. PROCEDURES 1 . 5 ml of each of the carbohydrate solutions is added into one set of the labeled test tubes. . 5 ml of Beebreads reagent is added to each test tubes. 3. The contents of each tube are shook well. All the tubes are placed in an actively boiling water bath at the same time. 4. After the water starts boiling again, the solutions is heated for 3. 5 min. ( Timing is important since a false positive test can be obtained for incarcerations with disaccharide, if the disaccharide are heated for more than 3. 5 min thereby breaking down ( hydroplaning ) to incarcerations ). 5. During this period, the tubes are observed closely and any change of clarity of the solutions is noted. ( A positive test for incarcerations s the appearance of a red precipitate of CLICK within 1 or 2 minutes, if no precipitate forms it indicates the presence of a disaccharide). RESULT: 1% CARBOHYDRATE SOLUTION FORMATION OF RED PRECIPITATE Fructose Yes Glucose Cellulose No Lactose Sucrose Starch Distilled water(as control tube) Beebreads test distinguishes incarcerations from disaccharide. Positive test for incarcerations is the appearance of red precipitate (Such) within 1-2 minutes. If no precipitate formed, indicates the presence of disaccharide. The red precipitate come from the reaction between the reduction of copper (II) acetate o copper(l) oxide (Such). RICH + cue+ + 21-420 RICOH + Couch + UH+ The alder group of the macroeconomics which normally forms a cyclic hemispherical is oxidized to the carboxylic. Glucose and fructose which are incarcerations show positive result in this test. Reducing disaccharide undergo the same reaction, but do so at a slower rate. So, the timing to heat the sample is set to 3. 5 minutes. However, the samples are heated no more than 3. Minutes to prevent the disaccharide breaking down to macroeconomics. Lactose, sucrose, cellulose, starch and distilled water showed negative result in this test. Only macroeconomics will give an immediate red precipitate in Beebreads test that is glucose and fructose the other remaining solutions which are cellulose, lactose, sucrose, starch and distilled water do not show any changes. ACTIVITY 3. 3 FEELING TEST: FOR REDUCING SUGARS To distinguish the reducing sugars and non-reducing sugars 1% of carbohydrate solutions ( glucose, fructose, cellulose, lactose, sucrose, starch ), distilled water(as control tube), Feeling solution A ( 69. 8 grams copper (II) sulfate penetrated dissolved in 1 liter of distilled water), Feeling solution B ( 346 grams Rockwell salt ( potassium sodium treated dehydrated) and 120 grams sodium hydroxide in 1 liter of distilled water) APPARATUS: 5 ml pipette, test tubes, test tube holder, test tube rack, pipette filler, stop watch PROCEDURES: 1. 5 ml of carbohydrate solutions is added into one set of test tubes. 2. By using different glass pipettes, 5 ml of Feeling A and 5 ml of Feeling B are added into each test tubes. 3. The solution is heated in a boiling water bath for 5-10 minutes. 4. Red brick precipitate is formed for positive results. 5. Changes in test tubes are recorded. Samples Result Positive-red brick precipitate Negative-no changes Distilled water Feelings solution is used to test for the presence of a reducing sugar. Feelings solution was based on the alder or ketene groups in the sugar structures. A sugar is classified as a reducing sugar only if it has an open-chain form with an alder group or a free hemispherical group. The presence of leaderless but not stones is detected by reduction of the deep blue solution of copper(al) to a red precipitate of insoluble copper oxide. Fructose, glucose and lactose show positive result in this test. All incarcerations are reducing sugars. Many disaccharide, like lactose, also have a reducing form, as one of the two units may have an open-chain form with an alder group. However, sucrose, in which the anorexic carbons of the two units are linked together, are non-reducing disaccharide since neither of the rings is capable of opening. Polysaccharides (sugars with multiple chemical rings) are non-reducing sugars. Polysaccharides have closed structures, which use free atoms to bond together their multiple rings, and take a much longer time to be broken down. So, starch and cellulose which are polysaccharides have negative result in Feelings test. Distilled water is not reducing sugar also shows negative result. Feeling test is the common test which is used to determine the presence of reducing sugar. Fructose, lactose and glucose are reducing sugars which give brick red precipitate after the solutions are heated. ACTIVITY 3. 4 BENEDICTS TEST: FOR REDUCING SUGARS To test for reducing sugars starch ), MM hydrochloric acid (HCI), Benedicts reagent, distilled water APPARATUS: Test tubes, test tube holder, test tube rack, 5 ml pipette, pipette filler, dropper, stop watch, water bath PROCEDURES 1. Ml of Benedicts reagent and 2 ml of carbohydrate are added to a test tube ND each tube is shook thoroughly. 2. All the tubes are placed in a boiling water bath at the same time. The solutions are heated for 5-6 min. 3. Any changes in color, in the transparencies and in the formation and color of any precipitate are observed and recorded. 4. Later, 4 drops of MM HCI are added to 5 ml of 1 % sucrose solution and is heated in the boiling water bath for 5 min. 5. 1 % starch solution is treated in the same way but the heating period was extended to 25-30 min. 6. -2 ml of each of solution is applied with Benedicts test in the same manner as before. 7. The results are compared with those obtained without acid treatment. Sugar solution Result of color of the solution Light blue Brick red precipitate are formed Light blue + white precipitate Sucrose + HCI Starch + HCI Light green The Benedicts test is used to detect the presence of reducing sugars (sugars with a free alder or ketene group) such as glucose, fructose and lactose. All incarcerations are reducing sugars; they all have a free reactive carbonyl group. Some disaccharide have exposed carbonyl groups and are also reducing sugars. Lactose which is disaccharide also called reducing sugar as it has the exposed carbonyl groups. Other disaccharide such as sucrose and starch are non-reducing sugars and will not react with Benedicts solution. Benedicts reagent is a mild oxidant with Cuscus, Cue (II) sulfate, as one of the reagents. In the presence of a reducing sugar, the blue solution of Cue (II) or Cue+2, is changed to a brick red/brown precipitate of Copper (l) or Cue+l oxide,Such. If there a small or large amount of the reducing sugar present, the color would range from green to brick red respectively. RICH + cue+ + UH- RICOH + Sucrose indirectly produces a positive result with Benedicts such + UH agent if heated with dilute hydrochloric acid prior to the test, although after this treatment it is no longer sucrose. The addition of HCI hydrolysis the non- reducing sugar, as it split it up into its component monomers. The monomers are reducing sugars which gave the positive result on the second reducing sugar test. The acidic conditions and heat break the glycoside bond in sucrose through hydrolysis. The products of sucrose decomposition are glucose and fructose, both of which can be detected by Benedicts reagent, as described above.

Sunday, March 8, 2020

James Hutton Essay Example

James Hutton Essay Example James Hutton Paper James Hutton Paper James Hutton A report done by Sarah Lynn Brixey James Hutton was a Scottish geologist, naturalist, and experimental farmer. He is considered the father of modern geology. His theories of geology and geologic time, are also called deep time, and came to be included in theories which were called plutonism and uniformitarianism. Plutonism is the disproven theory that all rocks formed by solidification of a molten mass. Uniformitarianism means of or pertaining to the thesis that processes that operated in the remote geological past are not different from those observed now. Another definition of uniformitarianism is supporting, conforming to, or derived from a theory or doctrine about uniformity, esp. on the subject of geology. In this report on James Hutton, you will learn who he was, his theory of rock formations, and his publication career. James Hutton was born in Edinburgh on June 3, 1726 as one of five children of a merchant who was also Edinburgh City Treasurer, but died when James was very young. He attended school at the Edinburgh High School, where he was particularly interested in mathematics and chemistry. At the age of 14, he attended the University of Edinburgh as a â€Å"student of humanity†. He was an intern to a lawyer at the age of 17, but took more of an interest in chemical experiments than legal work. At the age of 18, he became a doctor’s assistant and attended lectures of medicine at the University of Edinburgh. Three years later, he studied medicine in Paris, and in 1749, he received the degree of Doctor of Medicine at Leyden with a thesis on blood circulation. Around 1747, he had a son by a woman named Miss Edington, and other than giving the boy financial assistance, he had little to do with him. The boy went on to become a post office clerk in London. After receiving his degree, Hutton returned to London, and in the summer of 1750, at the age of 24, went back to Edinburgh and resumed experiments with close friend, James Davie. Their work on production of sal ammoniac from soot led to their partnership in profitable chemical works, manufacturing the crystalline salts which were used for dyeing, metalwork, and as smelling salts that were previously available only from natural sources and that had to be imported from Egypt. Hutton owned and rented out properties in Edinburgh, which employed a factor to manage this business. James Hutton inherited his father’s Berwickshire farms of Slighthouses, which are lowland farms that had been in the family since 1713, and a hill farm of Nether Monynut. In the early 1750s, he moved to Slighthouses, with his goal being to making improvements, which introduced farming practices from other parts of Britain and experimenting with plant and animal cultivation. He recorded his ideas and innovations in an unpublished thesis on The Elements of Agriculture. This developed his interest in meteorology and geology, and by 1753, he had become very fond of studying the surface of the earth, and was looking with anxious curiosity into every pit or ditch or bed of a river he came across. Working in a clearing and draining his farm provided many opportunities, and he noticed that a vast proportion of the present rocks are composed of materials afforded by the destruction of bodies, animal, vegetable and mineral, of more ancient formation†. His theoretical ideas began to come together in 1760, and while his farming activities continued, in 1764, he went on a geological tour of the north of Scotland with George Maxwell-Clerk. In 1768, Hutton returned to Edinburgh, leaving his farms to tenants but continuing to take an interest in farm improvements and research, which included experiments carried out at Slighthouses. He developed a red dye made from the roots of the madder plant. He had a house built in 1770 at St. John’s Hill, Edinburgh, overlooking Salisbury Crags. He was one of the most influential participants in the Scottish Enlightenment, and fell in with numerous first-class minds in the sciences including John Playfair, philosopher David Hume, and economist Adam Smith. He was a particularly close friend of Joseph Black, and the two of them together with Adam Smith founded the Oyster Club for weekly meetings, that included Hutton and Black to find a venue, which turned out to have rather disreputable associations. Between 1767 and 1774, Hutton had considerable close involvement with the construction of the Forth and Clyde Canal, making full use of his geological knowledge, both as a shareholder and as a member of the committee of management, and attended meetings including extended site inspections of all the works. In 1777, he published a pamphlet on Considerations on the Nature, Quality and distinctions of Coal and Culm, which successfully helped to obtain relief from removal duty on carrying small coal. Hutton hit on a variety of ideas to explain the rock formations he saw around him, but according to Playfair, he â€Å"was in no haste to publish his theory; for he was one of those who are much more delighted with the contemplation of truth, than with the praise of having discovered it. † After some 25 years of work, his Theory of the Earth; or and Investigation of the Laws observable in the Composition, Dissolution, and Restoration of Land upon the Globe was read to meetings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh in two parts, first by his friend Joseph Black on March 7, 1785, and the second by himself on April 4, 1785. He subsequently read an abstract of his dissertation Concerning the System of the Earth, its Duration and Stability to the Society meeting on July 4, 1785, which he had printed and circulated privately. In it, his theory states that the solid part of the present land appears in general, to have been composed of the productions of the sea, and of other materials similar to those now found upon the shores. Hence we find reason to conclude:  ·That the land on which we rest is not simple and original, but that it is a composition, and has been formed by the operation of second causes.  ·That before the present land was made, there had subsisted a world composed of sea and land, in which were tides and currents, with such operations at the bottom of the sea as now take place.  ·That while the present land is forming at the bottom of the ocean, the former land maintained plants and animals; at least the sea was then inhabited by animals, in a similar manner as it is presently. Hence we are led to conclude, that the greater part of our land, if not the whole had been produced by operations natural to this globe; but that in order to make this land a permanent body, resisting the operations of the waters, two things must be required.  ·The consolidation of masses formed by collections of loose or incoherent materials.  ·The elevation of those consolidated masses from the bottom of the sea, the place where they were collected, to the stations in which they now remain above the level of the ocean. At Glen Tilt in the Cairngorm Mountains in the Scottish Highlands, Hutton found granite penetrating metamorphic schists, in a way, which indicated that the granite had been molten at the time. This showed him that granite formed from cooling of molten rock, not precipitation out of water, as others at the time had believed, and that the granite must be younger than the schists. He went on to find a similar penetration of volcanic rock through sedimentary rock near the center of Edinburgh, at Salisbury Crags, adjoining Arthur’s Seat, which is now known as Hutton’s Section. He found other examples on the Isle of Arran, also known as Hutton’s Unconformity and in Galloway. In 1787, Hutton noted what is now known as the Hutton Unconformity at Inchbonny, Jedburgh, in layers of sedimentary rock. Hutton reasoned that there must have been several cycles, each involving deposition on the seabed, uplift with tilting and erosion, then undersea again for further layers to be deposited, and there have been many cycles before over an extremely long history. Although Hutton privately circulated printed version of the abstract of his Theory, which he read at a meeting of the Royal Society of Edinburgh on July 4, 1785, the theory as read at the March 7, 1785 and April 4, 1785 meetings did not appear in print until 1788. It was titled Theory of the Earth; or and Investigation of the Laws observable in the Composition, Dissolution, and Restoration of Land upon the Globe and appeared in Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. Following criticism, especially Richard Kirwan’s, who thought he was an atheist and not logical, among other things, Hutton published a two volume version of his theory in 1795, consisting of the 1788 version of his theory that included slight additions along with a lot of material drawn from shorter papers Hutton already had to hand on various subjects such as the origin of granite. It included a review of alternative theories, such as those of Thomas Burnet and Georges-Louis Leclerc, and Comte de Buffon. This whole was entitled An Investigation of the Principles of Knowledge and of the Progress of Reason, from Sense to Science and Philosophy when the third volume was completed in 1794. Its 2,138 pages prompted Playfair to remark that â€Å"The great size of the book, and the obscurity which may justly be objected to many parts of it, have probably prevented it from being received as it deserves†. His new theories placed him into opposition with the then-popular Neptunist theories of Abraham Gottlob Werner that all rocks had precipitated out of single enormous flood. Hutton proposed that the interior of the Earth was hot, and that this heat was the engine, which drove the creation of new rock; land was eroded by air and water and deposited into stone, and uplifted it into new lands. This theory was dubbed â€Å"Plutonist† in contrast to the flood-oriented theory. As well as combating the Neptunists, he also opened up the concept of deep time for scientific purposes, in opposition to Catastrophism. Rather than accepting that the Earth was no more than a few thousand years old, he maintained that the Earth must be much older, with a istory extending indefinitely into the distant past. His main line of argument was that the tremendous displacements and changes he was seeing did not happen in a short period of time by means of catastrophe, but that processes still happening on earth in the present day had caused them. As these processes were very gradual, the Earth needed to be ancient, in order to allow time for the changes. Before long, scie ntific inquiries provoked by his claims had pushed back the age of the earth into the millions of years- still too short when compared with what is known as in the 21st century, but a distinct improvement. The prose of Principles of Knowledge was so obscure, in fact, that it also impeded the acceptance of Hutton’s geological theories. Restatements of his geological ideas by John Playfair in 1802 and then Charles Lyell in the 1830s removed this hindrance. If anything, Hutton’s ideas were eventually accepted too well. At least some of the initial resistance to modern scientific ideas like plate tectonics and asteroid strikes causing mass extinctions can be attributed to too-strict adherence to uniformitarianism. It was not merely the Earth to which Hutton directed his attention. He had long studied the changes of the atmosphere. The same volume in which his Theory of Earth appeared contained also a Theory of Rain. He contended that the amount of moisture, which the air can retain in solution, increases with temperature, and, therefore, that on the mixture of two masses of air of different temperatures a portion of the moisture must be condensed and appear in visible form. He investigated the available data regarding rainfall and climate in different regions of the globe, and came to the conclusion that the rainfall is regulated by the humidity of the air on the one hand, and mixing of different air currents in the higher atmosphere on the other. In conclusion, James Hutton was a great man who did many things. On a more personal note, reading and learning about him peaked my curiosity in the things that we are learning in Earth Science class, and also to an extent in Geography. Before reading this, I didn’t really care about geology or rocks, for that matter. But after reading this, it sort of made me want to learn more about geology. Bibliography Page 1. britannica. com/EBchecked/topic/277702/James-Hutton 2. plutonism. Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. 2008. Merriam-Webster Online. 1 September 2008 merriam-webster. com/dictionary/plutonism

Thursday, February 20, 2020

Thin Layer Chromatography Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Thin Layer Chromatography - Essay Example But butan-1-ol isn’t a suitable dissolvent for amino acids except it is hydrous. Based on the structure of the amino acids in this practical, group B have greater side sequence compared to group A. Furthermore, the movement level of amino acids remainder on the dissoluble on the side sequence in the solvent. The segregation of amino acids rely on the way they are used and the section properties like the impact to aid with one dissolvent or another or variable the pH of the dissolvent. The division by electrical charges would progress to preferable outcome. The basics of paper chromatography are comparable to thin layer chromatography, however, the support substance are not the same. Furthermore, the advantages of the thin layer chromatography over paper chromatography are; Alpha-mannosidosis is an autosomal recessive lysosomal store disease caused by erroneous of lysosomal ÃŽ ±-mannosidase enzyme which is analysed by urine oligosaccharide diagnosis and blood ÃŽ ±-mannosidse test. Maple syrup urine disease is an autosomal recessive aminoacidopathy, it is an outcome of the default of branched-sequence amino acids. This disease is known by a Medical examination via urinary amino acid amount. g) A student spots an unknown sample on a TLC plate. After developing in hexane/ethyl acetate 50:50, he/she saw a single spot with an R f of 0.55. Does this indicate that the unknown material is a pure compound? What can be done to verify the purity of the sample? The way that you see one spot on a TLC plate does not so much imply that the result spotted holds one and only part. This is on the grounds that two mixes can have the same worth of Rf in a specific eluting framework. You must run the specimen in an alternate eluting dissolvable and check whether it again gives stand out spot. This is a great sign that the specimen is immaculate. Be that as it may, you